Patient Education Term Category: Deformities

Tarsal Coalition

Tarsal coalition develops between the tarsal bones found in the back of the foot due to an abnormal connection between two of the tarsal bones. Tarsal bones include the heel bone, the talus and navicular bones above the heel bone, the cuboid in front of the heel bone, and the cuneiform bones that sit in […]

Spurs

Spurs are outgrowths of bone. In the feet, they most commonly occur in the heel, but they can also grow near the toes, on the joint of the big toe, and other parts of the foot. The spurs usually develop in areas subjected to constant pressure. Bone spurs can become problematic when pain and other […]

Overlapping and Underlapping Toes

Overlapping and underlapping toes occur when toes are out of position. The conditions can be congenital due to inheritance or the fetus’ in-utero position, or they can develop over time from ill-fitting footwear that constricts or pressures the toes, keeping them bunched rather than flat. It can also stem from a bunion. An overlapping toe […]

Mallet Toe

Mallet toe happens when the joint at the tip of the toe remains bent and unable to straighten with the other toe joints being straight. The condition, caused by arthritis and bone and muscle imbalances, can be painful due to the toe’s down-turned tip rubbing against footwear, which creates pressure on the toe. Formation of […]

Jackson-Weiss Syndrome

Jackson-Weiss syndrome is a rare, genetic disorder that affects males and females alike. The disorder causes foot and skull abnormalities due to over-stimulated bone cell growth. On the feet, Jackson-Weiss syndrome impacts the toes, resulting in unusually large, stubby big toes that point inward, fused toe bones, and webbed skin between the second and third […]

Hammertoe

Hammertoe occurs when the toe bends at the middle joint, often as a result of wearing ill-fitting shoes. Genetics, arthritis, and muscle imbalance can also cause hammer toe. The affected toe resembles a hammer, which is where the deformity it gets its name. With hammer toe, the toe bends downward, rather than pointing straight forward. […]

Hallux Varus

Hallux varus is a deformity of the big toe joint that results in the big toe pointing outward, or away from the other toes, whereas a bunion would cause the big toe to lean inward. Hallux varus can be congenital, or it can occur from over corrective bunion surgery, a tight or short abductor hallucis […]

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus is a degenerative arthritis affecting the joint of the big toe that eventually causes the toe to become rigid, or immovable. Over time, the toe’s motion decreases due to wear-and-tear that deteriorates the articular cartilage, making it difficult to walk, run, or climb stairs, all of which involve pushing off of the big […]

Hallux Limitus

Hallux limitus, an arthritic condition of the hallux, or big toe, involves stiffness in the joint at the base of the big toe. Abnormal alignment of the first metatarsal bone is usually the cause of the condition that restricts motion. Injury, overuse, and genetics are other reasons for the development of hallux limitus. Symptoms include […]

Haglund’s Deformity

Haglund’s deformity, or “pump bump,” is a hard, bony enlargement on the back of the heel. Haglund’s deformity causes pain when footwear rubs against the protruding bone growth, irritating and inflaming the surrounding soft tissue. Bursitis can develop as a result of Haglund’s deformity and irritation to the area. Rigid-backed footwear, including work boots, high-heeled […]